"Iran and Cuba, in cooperation with each other, can bring America to its knees.
 The U.S. regime is very weak, and we are witnessing this weakness
from close up."

Fidel Castro, during his tour of Iran, Syria and Libya.
Agence France Press, May 10, 2001

CASTRO AND TERRORISM

A CHRONOLOGY

by Eugene Pons
with a foreword
by Jaime Suchlicki
Institute for Cuban &Cuban-American Studies
Occasional Paper Series
September 2001

http://www.miami.edu/iccas/terrorism_email.pdf


OPS Advisory Board
Luis Aguilar León,
Institute for Cuban &Cuban-American Studies
Graciella Cruz-Taura,
Florida Atlantic University
 
José Manuel Hernández,
Georgetown University (Emeritus)
Irving Louis Horowitz,
Rutgers University

Antonio Jorge,
Florida International
University

Armando Lago,
Association for the Study
of the Cuban Economy

Lesbia Orta Varona,
University of Miami

Jaime Suchlicki,
Director
  Institute for Cuban &
Cuban-American Studies



FOREWORD
Since 1948 when, as a young student, Fidel Castro participated in the
violence that rocked Colombian society and distributed anti-U.S.
propaganda, he has been guided by two objectives: a commitment to
violence and a virulent anti-Americanism. His struggle since and his forty-two
years rule in Cuba have been characterized primarily by these goals.
In the 1960’s Castro and his brother, Raul, believed that the political
and economic conditions that produced their revolution existed in Latin
America and that anti-American revolutions would occur throughout the
continent. Cuban agents and diplomats established contact with
revolutionary, terrorist and guerrilla groups in the area and began
distributing propaganda, weapons and aid. Many Latin Americans were
brought to Cuba for training and then returned to their countries
At the Tricontinental Conference held in Havana in 1966 and attended
by revolutionary leaders from throughout the world, Castro insisted that
bullets not ballots was the way to achieve power and provided the
institutional means to promote his anti-American, violent line. He insisted
that "conditions exist for an armed revolutionary struggle" and criticized
those who opposed armed struggle, including some Communist leaders in
Latin America, as "traitorous, rightists, and deviationists."



Castro’s attempts in the 1960’s to bring revolutionary, anti-American

regimes to power failed. His support for guerrillas and terrorist groups in

Guatemala, Venezuela, and Bolivia only produced violence and suffering to

those countries and their people, which repudiated violence as a means to

achieve power. Violence resulted in military regimes coming to power in

several Latin American countries

For the next two decades, the Cuban leadership, supported by the

Soviet Union, modified its tactics. In addition to agents from the America

Department, the subversive arm of Cuba’s Communist Party, Castro used his

Armed Forces to help friendly groups achieve power in Latin America and

Africa. In Nicaragua Cuban military personnel, weapons and intelligence

supported and helped bring to power the Sandinistas. In El Salvador, a

bloody civil war in part fomented and aided by Cuba, ended in a stalemate

and a negotiated peace.

In Africa, Castro achieved his most significant victories. The Soviet-Cuban

backed Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) faction was

installed in power in Angola and other Cuban supported regimes came to

power throughout the continent. The Cuban military also trained and

supplied the South-West African Peoples Organization (SWAPO) and the

African National Congress (ANC), forces fighting the South African regime.

Castro also became involved with African-Americans in the U.S. and

with the Macheteros, a Puerto Rican terrorist group. Cuba focused particular

attention on the black struggle in the U.S., providing aid and training to the

Black Panthers and the Black Liberation Army, as well as a safehaven on the

island for black leaders. Castro continuously promoted the independence of

Puerto Rico and supported the Macheteros who committed terrorist acts and

bank robberies in the United States. Several still live in Cuba.

Cuban military and intelligence personnel aided Middle Eastern

groups and regimes in their struggle against Israel, and Cuban troops fought

on the side of Arab States, particularly Syria, during the Yom Kippur war.

Castro sent military instructors and advisors into Palestinian bases;

cooperated with Libya in the founding of World Mathaba, a terrorist

movement; and established close military cooperation and exchanges with

Iraq, Libya, Southern Yemen, the Polisario Front for the Liberation of

Western Sahara, the PLO and others in the Middle East.

Despite the collapse of the Soviet Union, Castro continues to

undermine U.S. policies in the Middle East in several ways: a) by portraying

U.S. actions and diplomacy in the region as those of an aggressor, seeking to

impose hegemony by force, particularly in Iraq and the perpetration of

unjustified economic sanctions on Iraq and Iran; b) by portraying the U.S. as

the main obstacle to a peaceful settlement of the Israel/Arab conflict; and c)

by discrediting U.S. policies and seeking support for Cuba at the U.N.

These anti-American views and policies are conveyed as a systematic

message through a network of Cuban embassies and agents, as well as at the

U.N. and other non-governmental political, religious and cultural

organizations.

While not abandoning his close relationships in the Middle East,

Castro has recently concentrated his support on several groups: the Fuerzas

Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), where Castro, and his new

ally Hugo Chavez of Venezuela, see significant possibilities for success;

ETA, the Basque terrorist/separatist organization from Spain, which has

found refuge and support in Cuba, and the Irish Republican Army (IRA),

which established its Latin American headquarters in Havana.

American policymakers should pay careful attention to the intricate

web of relationships which emerges so clearly from this chronology. It

carefully details Castro’s involvement with and support for terrorist regimes

and organizations during the past four decades. Cuba’s geographical

location, Castro‘s continuous connections with these groups and states and

the harboring of terrorists in Havana creates a dynamic that requires

vigilance and alertness.

It should be emphasized that in addition to violence and terrorism,

Castro and his regime, have been for more than four decades, the most vocal

and active proponents of anti-Americanism. The often-repeated view in

many countries that the United States is an evil power, guilty for much of the

problems and sufferings of the developing world, is owed in great part to the

propaganda efforts of Fidel Castro.

Jaime Suchlicki

Director

Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies

September 2001


Castro and Terrorism

A Chronology
By Eugene Pons*
1959-1967

 Raúl Castro and Che Guevara visited Cairo and established contacts

with African liberation movements stationed in and supported by

Cairo. Both Cuban leaders visited Gaza and expressed support for the

Palestinian cause.

 

 Members of the Dominican Republic "Agrupación Política Catorce de

Junio" received military training in Cuba.

 Major emphasis was placed on instructing several hundred pro-Castro

Latin Americans in violence and guerrilla warfare. Dominicans,

Guatemalans, Venezuelans and Chileans were trained in special

camps in Cuba and infiltrated back to their countries.

 Castro established relations with the Algerian FLN; official and public

support was extended, weapons were shipped to the FLN through

Morocco (1960-1961). Cuba provided shelter, medical and

educational services and cooperation in the fields of counter-intelligence

and intelligence.

 African leaders from Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, South

Africa, Spanish Guinea, Tanganyika and Zanzibar arrived in Cuba for

military training.

 Che Guevara engaged in guerrilla operations in Congo-Kinshasa

(former Zaire) in 1965.

 A revolutionary trained in Cuba, John Okello, overthrew the pro-Western

government in Zanzibar in 1964 and proclaimed the

"People’s Republic of Zanzibar" which was promptly recognized by

Cuba and the Soviet Union.

 Conference of Latin American Communist Parties held in Havana

agreed to "help actively the guerrilla forces in Venezuela, Guatemala,

Paraguay, Colombia, Honduras and Haiti".

 Group of Venezuelans, members of the Movimiento de la Izquierda

Revolucionaria (MIR), trained in Cuba and landed in the Venezuela

coast in the State of Miranda.

 Cuban trained Guatemalans Cesar Montes and Luis Turcios Lima led

a violent terrorist/guerrilla campaign against the government in

Guatemala. Montes organized the Ejercito Guerrillero de los Pobres

(EGP) in Guatemala. In the 1980’s he joined the FMLN in El

Salvador and participated actively in the bloody civil war in that

country.

 Cuba welcomed the founding of the PLO. First contacts with

Palestinian FATAH in 1965 in Algiers and Damascus.

 The Tricontinental Conference was held in Havana in January, 1966

to adopt a common political strategy against colonialism,

neocolonialism, and imperialism. Cuba provided the organizational

structure to support terrorist, anti-American groups in the Middle East

and Latin America. The Organization for the Solidarity with the

Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America (OSPAAL) was created.

 Fidel Castro created The National Liberation Directorate (DLN) in

Cuba to support revolutionary groups throughout the world. DLN was

responsible for planning and coordinating Cuba’s terrorist training

camps in the island, covert movement of personnel and military

supplies from Cuba and a propaganda apparatus.

 A Cuban controlled Latin American Solidarity Organization (LASO),

with its permanent seat in Havana was created to "coordinate and

foment the fight against North American imperialism".

 In Venezuela, Castro made a relentless and determined effort to create

another Cuba by supporting the Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación

Nacional (FALN) and promoting violence and terrorism against the

democratically elected regime of Rómulo Betancourt.

 Castro sent weapons via Cairo, to the NLF in Southern Yemen. Cuban

agents were sent on fact-finding missions to North and South Yemen

(1967- 1968).

 Cuba published a small book by French Marxist journalist Regis

Debray Revolution in the Revolution, promoting guerrilla warfare in

Latin America. The book was translated into various languages and

distributed widely.

 Cuban supported guerrillas led by Che Guevara moved into Bolivia in

an attempt to create "many Vietnams " in South America.

 Cuba and Syria developed a close alliance and supported FATAH and

the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF).

1968-1975

 Cuba continued its military and political support for FATAH after the

Syrians broke with the latter, and Cuban military, political and

intelligence support was granted to other Palestinian organizations.

 Castro sent military instructors and advisors into Palestinian bases in

Jordan to train Palestinian Fedayeen (1968); first high-level delegation

from FATAH-PLO visited Cuba (1970).

 Several missions sent to Southern Yemen to support NLF/FATAH

Ismail both politically and militarily.

 Castro began supporting and training of M19, a Colombian guerrilla

group that captured the Dominican Embassy and the Justice building

in Bogota and assassinated several prominent Colombian judges.

 In 1970 a "Mini Manual for Revolutionaries" was published in the

official LASO publication Tricontinental, written by Brazilian urban

terrorist leader Carlos Marighella. The mini manual gives precise

instruction in terror tactics, kidnappings, etc. The short book was

translated into numerous languages and distributed worldwide by

Cuba.

 Cuba commenced political and military cooperation with Somalia's

Siad Barre (1969).

 Economic and political cooperation began with Libya in 1974.

 In 1974 the National Liberation Directorate (DLN) was reorganized

into the America Department (DA) under the Communist Party of

Cuba Central Committee. The DA centralized control over Cuban

activities for supporting national liberation movements. The DA was

responsible for planning and coordinating Cuba’s secret guerrilla and

terrorist training camps, networks for the covert movement of

personnel and material from Cuba, and a propaganda apparatus. DA

agents also operated in Europe and other regions. Trusted Castro ally

Manuel Piñeiro, " Barbaroja" was placed in charge.

 Cuba provided training and support to the Tupamaros, a terrorist

group operating in Uruguay.

 Cuba’s America Department (DA) set up a network for the funneling

of weapons and supplies to the Sandinistas in Nicaragua.

 In 1979 second in command in Cuba’s America Department (DA)

Armando Ulises Estrada, helped unify Sandinista factions fighting

Somoza.

 Closer connections with FATAH-PLO and other Palestinian

organizations were reinforced, including training of Latin American

guerrillas in Lebanon; Cuba’s military support included counter-intelligence

and intelligence training.

 Arafat visited Cuba in 1974.

 Cuba provided military support and personnel to Syria during the

Yom Kippur War (1973-1975).

 Black Panther Party members from the U.S. were trained in Canada

by Cuban personnel. Black Panther leaders and other U.S. blacks also

received weapons and explosives training in Havana.

 Cuba joined with Algeria and Libya on a diplomatic/political

offensive in support of Frente POLISARIO (People's Front for the

Liberation of Western Sahara and Río del Oro); later on provided

military cooperation, and medical services.

1976-1982

 The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) estimated that there were

300 Palestinians training in Cuban camps.

 Cuba supported the so-called "Steadfastness Front" against the U.S.

backed Camp David accord.

 Illich Rámirez Sánchez, known as "Carlos, the Jackal", responsible

for numerous terrorist acts in Europe, trained in Cuba. He attended the

1966 Tricontinental Conference in Havana and later trained in urban

guerrilla tactics, automatic weapons, explosives and sabotage in Cuba.

 Abu Iyad, a close aid to Yasser Arafat, stated in 1978 that hundreds of

Palestinian had been sent to Cuban terrorist camps.

 Additional military and political support provided to the Palestinian

cause; Arafat attended the Sixth Non-Aligned Conference in Havana

(1979).

 During Havana visit, Arafat signed agreement for military cooperation

and arms supply.

 Significant hard currency loans (tens of million) were facilitated by

Arafat-PLO to the Cuban government under very soft terms; Cuba

granted diplomatic and political support to Arafat during the 1982

Israeli invasion of Lebanon.

 The Aden (South Yemen) regime supported the Ethiopian radical

officers commanded by Mengistu Haile Mariam, sending Yemeni

military units in support of the latter against Somali aggression, and

asking the Cubans to do the same. Cuba joined in, first with a group of

officers headed by General Arnaldo Ochoa, a move that was followed

later on by the deployment of large Cuban forces against the Somali

invasion. Also as part of the alliance with the Aden regime, Cuba

granted some small-scale support to the Dhofaris in their armed

struggle against the monarchy in Oman.

 The Cuban trained Congolese National Liberation Front invaded

Shala, Zaire.

 As part of Cuba's alliance with Mengistu Haile Mariam's regime in

Ethiopia, the Cuban leadership decided to engage in active political

and military support of the Liberation Movement of Southern Sudan

headed by John Garang against the Arab-Muslim regime in Khartoum.

 Cuba developed closer ties with and sent military advisors to Iraq.

 Cuba’s America Department (DA) operated a weapons pipeline to the

Farabundo Martí National Front (FMLN) a terrorist group attempting

to gain power in El Salvador.

 Cuba cooperated with Libya in the political founding of the World

MATHABA in Tripoli, to provide political support and coordinate

revolutionary violence throughout the world. Cuba supported Libya’s

stand on Chad and the FRENTE POLISARIO.

 Cuban trained terrorists members of the Guatemalan EGP kidnapped a

businessman in Guatemala. Several were arrested in Mexico when

attempting to collect ransom.

 Despite its close links with Baghdad, Cuba recognized and praised the

Iranian Revolution. Once Iraq attacked Iran, Castro withdrew his

military advisors from Baghdad and adopted a position of official

impartiality, though more sympathetic to Baghdad, due to his past

relations.

1983-1990

 Argentine born Cuban intelligence agent Jorge Massetti helped funnel

Cuban funds to finance Puerto Rican terrorists belonging to the

Machetero group. The Macheteros highjacked a Wells Fargo truck in

Connecticut in September 1983 and stole $7.2 million.

 Cuba’s America Department (DA) provided, thru Jorge Massetti,

weapons and several thousand dollars to the Chilean MIR.

 Libyan support to Latin American revolutionary movements,

especially in Central America and the whole of the World

MATHABA project, declined after the U.S.bombing of Tripoli in

1986.

 Cuban agents in Mexico engaged in bank robberies to finance several

terrorist groups from Latin America operating out of Mexico.

 The Palestinian Intifada increased Cuba’s support for Arafat and the

PLO, both diplomatic and military.

 Several dozen Mexicans received training in terrorism and guerrilla

warfare in Sierra del Rosario, Pinar del Rio Province and in Guanabo,

in eastern Cuba.

 After the negotiations leading to the establishment of the Palestinian

National Authority, Cuban-Palestinian military cooperation was

enhanced, including the areas of counter-intelligence and intelligence.

 In early 1989, Cuban General Patricio de la Guardia directed a plot in

Havana and charged Jorge Massetti with blowing up the U.S.

transmission balloon of TV Martí located in the Florida Keys.

 Cuba condemned Iraq for its invasion and annexation of Kuwait,

supporting the latter's sovereignty; it also condemned U.S. military

operations in the Gulf and abstained at the U.N. from supporting the

bulk of the sanctions imposed on Baghdad. A Cuban military

delegation was sent to Iraq to learn and share what was considered

vital information and experiences from U.S. combat operations in

Kuwait and Iraq.

 Cuba provided advanced weapons and demolition training to the

Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) in Perú. The Tupac

Amaru attacked the U.S. Embassy in 1984; bombed the Texaco

offices in 1985 and attacked the residence of the U.S. Ambassador in

1985 all in Lima, Perú.

1991-2001

 ETA, a Spanish terrorist organization seeking a separate Basque

homeland, established the Cuartel General (General Headquarters) in

Havana.

 A high-level PLO military delegation including the head of

Intelligence paid a visit to Cuba.

 On February 24, 1996, Cuban Air Force Migs shot down, in

international waters, two small unarmed civilian planes belonging to

Brothers to the Rescue, a Miami based group. All occupants were

killed, including three American citizens.

 The election of Abdelaziz Bouteflika (April 1999) as President of

Algeria, opened new opportunities for Cuba, given Bouteflika's close

relationship with the Cuban government for more than three decades.

 PLO leaders continue to have close relations with the Cuban

leadership, having access to specialized military and intelligence

training, either in Cuba or Palestinian territory, and in the sharing of

intelligence.

 A spokesman for the Basque government in Spain met in Havana

with two high level ETA terrorist taking refuge in Cuba, José Angel

Urtiaga Martinez and Jesús Lucio Abrisqueta Corte.

 Cuba continued to provide safe haven to several terrorists fugitives

from the U.S. They include: Black Liberation Army leader Joanne

Chesimard aka Assata Shakur, one of New Jersey’s most wanted

fugitives for killing a New Jersey State trooper in 1973 and Charlie

Hill a member of the Republic of New Afrika Movement wanted for

the hijacking of TWA 727 and the murder of a New Mexico State

trooper

 A number of Basque ETA terrorists who gained sanctuary in Cuba

some years ago continued to live on the island, as did several Puerto

Ricans members of the Machetero Group.

 Castro refused to join the other Ibero-American heads of state in

condemning ETA terrorism at the 2000 Ibero-American Summit in

Panamá and slammed Mexico for its support of the Summit’s

statement against terrorism.

 Castro continues to maintain ties to several state sponsors of terrorism

in Latin America. Colombia's two largest terrorist organizations, the

Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the National

Liberation Army (ELN), both maintain a permanent presence on the

island.

 Colombian officials arrested IRA members Niall Connelly, Martin

McCauley and James Monaghan and accused then of training the

Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). Connelly had

been living in Cuba as the representative of the IRA for Latin

America.

 Former Defense Department counter-terrorism expert John More told

UPI that Cubans, militant Palestinians, Hezbollah and even advisors

from the leftist government of Venezuela are all active in Colombia.

 During the trial of several Cuban spies in Miami, one of the accused

Alejandro Alonso revealed on December 30, 2000 that he was

instructed from Havana to locate areas in South Florida "where we

can move persons as well as things, including arms and explosives."

 Speaking at Tehran University in Iran on May 10, 2001 Fidel Castro

vowed that "the imperialist king will finally fall".

*Eugene Pons is the Coordinator of Cuba’s Information System at the

Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies, University of Miami.

         


                                        
                                                
Glossary

BPP - Black Panther Party - Founded in the United States in 1966 by Huey

P. Newton and Bobby Seale. It adopted Marxist-Leninist principles along

with urban guerrilla warfare, and a structure similar to the American

Communist party.

DGI - Directório General de Inteligencia - The Cuban Department in charge

of collecting intelligence and carrying out covert operations outside Cuba.

DA - America Department - Centralized control over Cuban activities for

supporting national liberation movements, responsible for planning and

coordinating Cuba’s secret guerrilla and terrorist camps, and propaganda

apparatus.

DLN - National Liberation Directorate - Organization created in Cuba to

support revolutionary groups throughout the world. Responsible for planning

and coordinating Cuba’s terrorist training camps in the island, covert

movement of personnel and military supplies from Cuba, and propaganda

apparatus.

EGP - Ejercito Guerrillero de los Pobres - A political-military Marxist-Leninist

organization that followed Cuba and Vietnam as revolutionary

models. This Guatemalan insurgent organization was trained in Cuba and

was very active during the 1970s, seeking to depose the political and

military structure of the country.

ELF - Eritrean Liberation Front - The most influential Eritrean organization

fighting for secession from Ethiopia in the 1960s, actively supported by the

Cuban and Syrian regime since 1965. Various internal divisions developed

later on until the late 1970s, when a new front was built based on very

different domestic and external alliances and, eventually led the Eritreans to

victory. Cuba's support to Mengistu Haile Mariam's regime in 1978 meant

the cessation of previous Cuban backing to the Eritrean cause.

ELN - National Liberation Army - Organized by the Castro regime, this

Colombian Marxist insurgent group was founded in 1965. Its main terrorist

activities includes kidnappings and extortion targeting foreign employees of

large corporations.

ETA - Basque Separatist Movement - This organization was founded by

militants and leftist students from the University of Madrid in 1962. They

formed guerilla units that commit violent terrorist acts claiming that they are

fighting for freedom of the Basque Region, in Spain. This group has close

relations with the IRA. The two groups have offices in Havana and their

members have found safe haven in Cuba.

FALN - Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional - A Venezuelan guerrilla

organization trained by Cuba in violence and terrorism.

FARC - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - Established in 1964, the

FARC is the oldest and best-equipped Marxist insurgency in Colombia. It is

a well-organized terrorist group that controls several rural and urban areas. It

has received financial and military aid from Cuba and many of its members

were trained in Havana.

FATAH - Palestine National Liberation Movement - Founded in 1959 by

younger generations of Palestinians that had experienced the defeats of 1948

and 1956. The FATAH are strongly committed to a radical nationalist

platform to fight for Palestine and against Arab intervention and

manipulations of the Palestinian problem. Mostly an underground

organization until the June War in 1967 when it transformed itself into the

most powerful and influential party inside Palestinian and Arab politics.

FLN - Front de Libération National - The political and military organization

that led the war of national liberation against French colonial rule between

1954 and 1962. Ruling political party until the 1980s in Algeria.

FMLN - Farabundo Martí National Front - Formed in 1970, the FMLN is a

terrorist Marxist-Leninist organization intent on establishing a communist

revolutionary regime in El Salvador. The FMLN was extremely active in its

terrorist campaign, receiving assistance from Nicaragua and Cuba.

FSLN - Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional - This organization was

founded in Havana in 1961 when Carlos Fonseca-Amador’s Nicaraguan

Patriotic Youth organization merged with Tomas Borge’s Cuban-supported

insurgent group. The group adopted Marxist-Leninist ideology and gained

support from the Castro government, employing low-level guerrilla warfare

and urban terrorism tactics to overthrow the Somoza dictatorship.

IRA - Irish Republican Army - The IRA is the most dangerous terrorist

organization of Northern Ireland dating back to the early 1920s. Although, it

wasn’t until the 1970’s when the IRA began terrorist actions and resurrected

the historical conflicts. The IRA targets political transformation for United

Ireland by eliminating Britain from Northern Ireland and replacing the

government of Northern Ireland with a socialist government. Its Latin

American headquarters are in Havana.

LASO - Latin American Solidarity Organization - A Cuban controlled

organization founded during the 1966 Tri-Continental Conference in Havana

to "coordinate and foment the fight against North American imperialism."

M-19 - Movimiento 19 de Abril - A Castro supported group formed in 1974

to disrupt Colombia’s government through acts of terrorism and violence.

The M-19 was very active throughout the 1980s receiving assistance and

training from the Montoneros and Tupamaros groups and the Cuban

government, causing Colombia to temporarily sever diplomatic relations

with Cuba.

M-6-14 - Agrupación Politica Catorce de Junio - Dominican guerrilla

organization trained in Cuba.

MACHETEROS - This terrorist organization is composed of four Puerto

Rican groups: 1) the Macheteros, 2) the Ejercito Popular Borícua (EPB), 3)

the Movimiento Popular Revolucionario, and 4) the Partido Revolucionario

de Trabajadores Puertorriqueños. Most of the Macheteros have been trained

in Cuba, were they have established relations with other terrorist groups.

They are responsible for several terrorist acts within the United States and

throughout Puerto Rico.

MIR - Movimiento de la Izquierda Revolucionaria - A Chilean insurgent

organization founded in 1965 and supported by Castro. The MIR was very

active in the mid-1970s when they promoted violence and occupied several

rural areas in Chile. The group encountered several set backs during the

1980s that essentially ended their activity.

MONTONEROS - An Argentinean guerilla organization that was formed in

1968 as a Peronist urban anti-government group. It adopted a Marxist

ideology in the mid-1970s after it united with the Fuerzas Armadas

Revolucionarias de Argentina. In 1977, many of its members were exiled

and its numbers reduced to less than 300.

MRTA - Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement - Marxist-Leninist

revolutionary organization formed in 1983 and supported by the Castro

regime. The MRTA’s intent was to establish a Marxist regime in Peru

through terrorism, although Peru’s counter terrorism program diminished the

groups’ ability to effectively carry out terrorist attacks.

NLF - National Front for the Liberation of South Yemen - Created in 1962

in the course of the revolution in North Yemen against the monarchy and

supported by Nasser, the NLF is another important and successful branch of

the Arab Nationalist Movement. Since 1965 it has had very close relations

with Cuba. In 1966-1967, it broke with Nasser and finally forced the British

to negotiate and evacuate Aden.

OSPAAL - Organization for the Solidarity of the Peoples of Africa, Asia and

Latin America - Founded in 1966 in Cuba at the Tri-Continental Conference,

this organization aims to support the struggle of the people of Africa, Asia

and Latin America against imperialism, colonialism and neo-colonialism.

PLO - Palestine Liberation Organization - This organization was founded in

Cairo in 1964 under the auspices of Egypt (then known as the United Arab

Republic) to serve Nasser's manipulations of the Palestinian cause. The

group was composed mostly of conservative Palestinian intellectuals and

bureaucrats serving Arab governments. The PLO was an instrument of

Nasser's foreign policy until the June War of 1967, when the old PLO

leadership collapsed to be replaced by FATEH's leadership headed by

Arafat.

POLISARIO - People’s Front for the Liberation of Western Sahara and Río

del Oro - The Frente POLISARIO was inspired by the ANM tradition and

the Algerian FLN and was created to fight against the Spanish-Morrocan-Mauritinian

arrangements to split the former colony of Saguía el Hamra/Río

del Oro (known as Western Sahara) between the two African states. This

group enjoyed active support from Algeria and Libya and Cuba.

POPULAR FRONT FOR THE LIBERATION OF PALESTINES - The

most important branch of the Arab Nationalist Movement (ANM), created in

the 1950s as radical followers of Nasser. After the June War of 1967, the

group disassociated itself from Nasser and focused on building a more

radical alternative within the Palestinians under the name of Popular Front.

The group has strong alliances within Lebanon, Jordan, Yemen, and the

Gulf, and was heavily engaged in terrorist activities during the 1970s.

TRICONTINENTAL - Cuban publication disseminated by the Organization

for the Solidarity of the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America

(OSPAAL) in four languages: Spanish, English, French, and Italian /

promoting the Castro line of armed struggle.

TUPAMAROS or MNL - Movimiento Nacional de Liberación Tupamaros -

This Uruguay insurgent group was organized in the early 1960s by law

student Raul Sendic. The Tupamaros were one of the first terrorist groups to

use guerrilla warfare in urban areas and established independent terrorist

cells throughout the country.

WORLD MATHABA - A Libyan project from the late 1970s to promote

political, financial, and military support for revolutionary movements

throughout the world. Ghaddafi called on other "revolutionary governments"

to support this project, which Cuba did. MATHABA was essentially a tool

in the hands of the Libyans to project their individual goals and agenda.

Financial and military assistance was never a collective decision, but

responded for the most part to bilateral arrangements between Ghaddafi's

regime and individual organizations, some of which resorted, at different

stages, to terrorist methods like the IRA and ETA. Insurgencies in Central

America, like the Sandinistas and others, were privileged beneficiaries along

with the African National Congress, Frente POLISARIO, and others.


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The Institute for Cuban & Cuban-

American Studies

The Institute for Cuban & Cuban-American Studies (ICCAS) is part of the School of

International Studies at the University of Miami. ICCAS serves as an academic center

for the research and study of Cuban, Cuban-American and U.S.-Cuban topics. It helps

determine and direct the research agenda in Cuban Studies at the University of Miami

and in the broader world of scholarship through academic programs, publications, and the

sponsoring of original research on specific topics. ICCAS offers courses on Cuban

history and culture and acquires or encourages the acquisition of relevant books,

documents, collections, and other materials for the Cuban Heritage Collection at the

University of Miami Otto G. Richter Library. It also serves as an educational link

between the university, the exile community, and the South Florida community at-large.

For information please call (305) 284-CUBA (2822); Fax (305) 284-4875; Email to

[email protected] <mailto:[email protected]>